A guided tour of our research with links to individual papers is on the Research page.


Zélia Silva, Tiago Ferro, Danielle Almeida, Helena Soares, José Alexandre Ferreira, Fanny M Deschepper, Paul J Hensbergen, Martina Pirro, Sandra J van Vliet, Sebastian Springer, and Paula A. Videira:
MHC Class I Stability is Modulated by Cell Surface Sialylation in Human Dendritic Cells.
Pharmaceutics 12 (2020), p.249; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics12030249


Raghavendra Anjanappa, Maria Garcia-Alai, Janine-Denise Kopicki, Julia Lockhauserbäumer, Mohamed Aboelmagd, Janina Hinrichs, Ioana Maria Nemtanu, Charlotte Uetrecht, Martin Zacharias, Sebastian Springer*, and Rob Meijers*:
Structures of peptide-free and partially loaded MHC class I molecules reveal mechanisms of peptide selection.
Nature Communications 11, 1314 (2020). doi:10.1038/s41467-020-14862-4


Andreas Moritz, Raghavendra Anjanappa, Claudia Wagner, Sebastian Bunk, Martin Hofmann, Gabriele Pszolla, Ankur Saikia, Maria Garcia-Alai, Rob Meijers, Hans- Georg Rammensee, Sebastian Springer, and Dominik Maurer:
High-throughput peptide-MHC complex generation and kinetic screenings of TCRs with peptide-receptive HLA-A*02:01 molecules.
Science Immunology 4 (2019); doi: 10.1126/sciimmunol.aav0860

For additional material on the two Science Immunology publications, see the News and Thoughts page.

Sunil Kumar Saini, Tripti Tamhane, Raghavendra Anjanappa, Ankur Saikia, Sofie Ramskov, Marco Donia, Inge Marie Svane, Søren Nyboe Jakobsen, Maria Garcia- Alai, Martin Zacharias, Rob Meijers, Sebastian Springer*, and Sine Reker Hadrup*:
Empty peptide-receptive MHC class I molecules for efficient detection of antigen-specific T cells
Science Immunology 4 (2019); doi: 10.1126/sciimmunol.aau9039

For additional material on the two Science Immunology publications, see the News and Thoughts page.

Ida Hafstrand, Ece Canan Sayitoglu, Anca Apavaloaei, Benjamin John Josey, Renhua Sun, Xiao Han, Sara Pellegrino, Didem Ozkazanc, Renée Potens, Linda Janssen, Johan Nilvebrant, Per-Åke Nygren, Tatyana Sandalova, Sebastian Springer, Anna-Maria Georgoudaki, Adil Doganay Duru, and Adnane Achour:
Successive crystal structure snapshots suggest the basis for MHC class I peptide loading and editing by tapasin.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2019); doi: 10.1073/pnas.1807656116


Cindy Dirscherl, Zeynep Hein, Venkat Raman Ramnarayan, Catherine Jacob-Dolan, and Sebastian Springer:
A two-hybrid antibody micropattern assay reveals cell surface clustering of MHC I heavy chains.
eLife 7 (2018): e34150. doi: 10.7554/eLife.34150
Watch the video on YouTube that explains the experimental system!


Sujit Kumar Verma, Anja Karin Albrecht, Verena Siebecke, Gerd Klöck, Tatiana A. Kolesnikova, and Sebastian Springer:
Comparative validation of a microcapsule-based immunoassay for the detection of proteins and nucleic acids.
PLOS ONE 13 (2018): e0201009. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0201009
Read the Jacobs University press release (also in German)!


Zeynep Hein, Britta Borchert, Esam Tolba Abualrous, and Sebastian Springer:
Distinct mechanisms survey the structural integrity of HLA-B*27:05 intracellularly and at the surface.
PLOS ONE 13 (2018): e0200811. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0200811
Read the Jacobs University press release (also in German)!


Cindy Dirscherl, Maria Iossifidou, and Sebastian Springer:
Antikörper-Mikropatterns zur Analyse von Proteininteraktionen in Zellen.
Biospektrum 24 (2018), 400-403; doi: 10.1007/s12268-018-0936-3


Venkat Raman Ramnarayan, Linda Janßen, Zeynep Hein, Natalia Lis, Swapnil Ghanwat, and Sebastian Springer:
Cytomegalovirus gp40/m152 uses TMED10 as ER anchor to retain MHC class I.
Cell Reports 23 (2018), 3068-3077; doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.05.017
Jacobs University Press Release


Cindy Dirscherl and Sebastian Springer:
Protein micropatterns printed on glass – novel tools for protein-ligand binding assays in live cells.
Engineering in Life Sciences 18 (2018), 124-131; doi: 10.1002/elsc.201700010


Tatiana Kolesnikova, Gayane Kiragosyan, Trang H.N. Le, Sebastian Springer*, and Mathias Winterhalter*:
Protein A-functionalized polyelectrolyte microcapsules as universal platform for enhanced targeting of cell surface receptors.
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 9 (2017), 11506-17; doi: 10.1021/acsami.7b01313


Cindy Dirscherl, Raghavendra Palankar, Mihaela Delcea, Tatiana A. Kolesnikova, and Sebastian Springer:
Specific Capture of Peptide-Receptive Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Molecules by Antibody Micropatterns Allows for a Novel Peptide Binding Assay in Live Cells.
Small, (2017); doi: 10.1002/smll.201602974


Myriam Lawand*, Anastasia Abramova*, Valérie Manceau, Sebastian Springer and Peter van Endert:
TAP-Dependent and -Independent Peptide Import into Dendritic Cell Phagosomes.
J.Immunol. 197 (2016), 3454-63; doi: 10.4049/​jimmunol.1501925.


Sujit K. Verma, Amanda Amoah, Ulla Schellhaas, Mathias Winterhalter, Sebastian Springer*, and Tatiana A. Kolesnikova*:
“To Catch or not to Catch”: Microcapsule-Based Sandwich Assay for Detection of Proteins and Nucleic Acids.
Adv. Functional Mat. 26 (2016), 6015-24; doi: 10.1002/adfm.201601328.


Linda Janssen, Venkat Ramnarayan, Mohamed Aboelmagd, Maro Iliopoulou, Zeynep Hein, Irina Majoul, Susanne Fritzsche, Anne Halenius, and Sebastian Springer:
The murine cytomegalovirus immunoevasin gp40 binds MHC class I molecules to retain them in the early secretory pathway.
J. Cell Sci. 129 (2016), 219-227; doi: 10.1242/jcs.175620.
Read the Jacobs University press release !


Gerda Fleischmann, Olivier Fisette, Christoph Thomas, Ralph Wieneke, Franz Tumulka, Clemens Schneeweiss, Sebastian Springer, Lars V. Schäfer, and Robert Tampé:
Mechanistic Basis for Epitope Proofreading in the Peptide Loading Complex .
J. Immunol. 195 (2015), 4503-13; doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1501515.


Esam T. Abualrous, Sunil K. Saini, Venkat R. Ramnarayan, Martin Zacharias, and Sebastian Springer:
The carboxy terminus of the ligand peptide determines the stability of the MHC class I molecule H-2Kb: a combined molecular dynamics and experimental study.
PLoS ONE 10 (2015): e0135421; doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0135421


Sebastián Montealegre, Vaishnavi Venugopalan, Susanne Fritzsche, Corinna Kulicke, Zeynep Hein*, and Sebastian Springer*:
Dissociation of beta-2 microglobulin determines the surface quality control of MHC class I molecules.
FASEB J. 29 (2015), 2780-8; doi: 10.1096/fj.14-268094.


Sebastian Springer:
Transport and quality control of MHC class I molecules in the early secretory pathway.
Curr. Opin. Immunol. 34 (2015), 83-90; doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2015.02.009.


Esam T. Abualrous, Susanne Fritzsche, Zeynep Hein, Mohammed S. Al Balushi, Peter Reinink, Louise H. Boyle, Ursula Wellbrock, Antony N. Antoniou, and Sebastian Springer:
F pocket flexibility influences the tapasin dependence of two differentially disease-associated MHC Class I proteins.
Eur. J. Immunol. 45 (2015), p. 1248-57; doi: 10.1002/eji.201445307.
Watch the video abstract on YouTube!


Sunil Kumar Saini, Heiko Schuster, Venkat Raman Ramnarayan, Hans-Georg Rammensee, Stefan Stevanović, and Sebastian Springer:
Dipeptides catalyze rapid peptide exchange on MHC class I molecules.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112 (2015), p. 202-207.
News release: “Discovery by Jacobs University researchers facilitates detection of immune cells that fight tumors and viruses”


Susanne Fritzsche, Esam Tolba Abualrous, Britta Borchert, Frank Momburg, and Sebastian Springer:
Allotype-specific release from endoplasmic reticulum matrix proteins controls cell surface transport of MHC class I molecules.
Traffic 16 (2015), p. 591-603; doi: 10.1111/tra.12279
Watch the video abstract!


Katja Ostermeir, Sebastian Springer, and Martin Zacharias:
Coupling between side chain interactions and binding pocket flexibility in HLA-B*44:02 molecules investigated by Molecular Dynamics simulations.
Mol. Immunol. 63 (2014), p. 312-9; doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2014.07.021.


Zeynep Hein, Hannes Uchtenhagen, Esam Tolba Abualrous, Sunil Kumar Saini, Linda Janssen, Andy Van Hateren, Constanze Wiek, Helmut Hanenberg, Frank Momburg, Adnane Achour, Tim Elliott, Sebastian Springer, and Denise Boulanger:
Peptide-independent stabilization of MHC class I molecules breaches cellular quality control.
J. Cell Sci. 127 (2014), 2885-2897; doi: 10.1242/jcs.145334
With an editorial introduction: “MHC class I proteins are stable without peptide”.
The complete materials and methods section is at


Hsiang-Ting Hsu*, Linda Janßen*, Myriam Lawand, Jessica Kim, Alicia Perez-Arroyo, Slobodan Culina, Abdel Gdoura, Anne Burgevin, Delphine Cumenal, Yousra Fourneau, Anna Moser, Roland Kratzer, F. Susan Wong, Sebastian Springer, and Peter van Endert:
Endoplasmic Reticulum Targeting alters Regulation of Expression and Antigen Presentation of Proinsulin.
J Immunol. 192 (2014), p. 4957-4966; doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1300631.


Susanne Fritzsche and Sebastian Springer:
Pulse-chase analysis for studying protein synthesis and maturation.
Curr. Protocols Prot. Sci. 78 (2014), 78:30.3.1.-30.3.23; doi: 10.1002/0471140864.ps3003s78.


Sebastian Springer, Per Malkus, Britta Borchert, Ursula Wellbrock, Robert A. Lesch, Rainer Duden, Randy Schekman:
Regulated oligomerization induces uptake of a membrane protein into COPII vesicles independent of its cytosolic tail.
Traffic 5 (2014), p. 531-545.
Watch the video highlight on YouTube!


Sebastian Temme, Martin Zacharias, J, Neumann, S. Wohlfromm, A. König, N. Temme, Sebastian Springer, John Trowsdale, and Norbert Koch:
A novel family of human lymphocyte antigen class II receptors may have its origin in archaic human species.
J.Biol.Chem. 289 (2013), p. 639-53.
Newspaper article featuring this: Modern humans inherited ‘immune gene’ from Neanderthals, Times of India, Nov. 24, 2013.


Sunil K. Saini, Katja Ostermeir, Venkat R. Ramnarayan, Heiko Schuster, Martin Zacharias, and Sebastian Springer:
Dipeptides promote folding and peptide binding of MHC class I molecules.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110 (2013), p. 15383–15388.


Hannes Uchtenhagen, Esam T. Abualrous, E. Stahl, M. Sluijter, Martin Zacharias, Tatiana Sandalova, Thorbald van Hall, Sebastian Springer, Per Nygren, and A.dnane Achour:
Proline substitution independently enhances H-2Db complex stabilization and TCR recognition of melanoma-associated peptides.
Eur. J. Immunol. 43 (2013), p. 3051-3060.
With a commentary by H. Hickman and J. Yewdell: “Going Pro to enhance T-cell immunogenicity: Easy as π?” Eur. J. Immunol. 43 (2013), p. 2814-1817.


N. Beutler, S. Hauka, A. Niepel, D.J. Kowalewski, J. Uhlmann, Esther Ghanem, S. Erkelenz, C. Wiek, Helmut Hanenberg, H. Schaal, Stefan Stevanovic, Sebastian Springer, Frank Momburg, Hartmut Hengel, and Anne Halenius:
A natural tapasin isoform lacking exon 3 modifies peptide loading complex function.
Eur J. Immunol. 46 (2013), p. 1459-1469.


Susanne Fritzsche and Sebastian Springer:
Investigating MHC class I folding and trafficking with pulse-chase experiments.
Mol. Immunol. 55 (2013), p. 126-130.


Sunil K. Saini, Esam T. Abualrous, Anca-S. Tigan, Kathryn Covella, Ursula Wellbrock, and Sebastian Springer:
Not all empty MHC class I molecules are molten globules: Tryptophan fluorescence reveals a two-step mechanism of thermal denaturation.
Mol. Immunol. 54 (2013), p. 386–396.


Esther Ghanem and Sebastian Springer:
Determining the Activity of the Transporter Associated with Antigen Processing in the Compartments of the Secretory Pathway.
In: Antigen Processing: Methods and Protocols (Peter van Endert, ed.).
Methods in Molecular Biology 960 (2012), p. 137-144.


Malgorzata A. Garstka, Susanne Fritzsche, Isabel Lenart, Zeynep Hein, Gytis Jankevicius, Louise H. Boyle, Tim Elliott, John Trowsdale, Antony N. Antoniou, Martin Zacharias, and Sebastian Springer:
Tapasin dependence of MHC class I molecules correlates with their conformational flexibility.
FASEB J. 25 (2011), p. 3989-98.


Norbert Koch, Martin Zacharias, A. König, Sebastian Temme, J. Neumann, and Sebastian Springer:
Stoichiometry of HLA Class II-Invariant Chain Oligomers.
PLoS ONE 6(2): e17257 (2011).


Esther Ghanem, Susanne Fritzsche, Mohammed Al-Balushi, Jood Hashem, Lana Ghuneim, Lena Thomer, Hubert Kalbacher, Peter Van Endert, Emmanuel J.H.J. Wiertz, Robert Tampé, and Sebastian Springer:
The Transporter associated with Antigen Processing (TAP) is active in a post-ER compartment.
J. Cell Science 123 (2010), p. 4271-4279.


Deborah Studer, Raghavendra Palankar, Mathieu Bédard, Mathias Winterhalter, and Sebastian Springer:
Retrieval of a Metabolite from Cells with Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules.
Small 6 (2010), p. 2412-2419.


PVK Praveen*, R. Yaneva*, H. Kalbacher, and S. Springer:
Tapasin edits peptides on MHC class I molecules by accelerating peptide exchange.
Eur. J. Immunol. 40 (2010), p. 214-224.


Rakina Yaneva, Clemens Schneeweiss, Martin Zacharias, and Sebastian Springer:
Peptide binding to MHC class I and II proteins: new avenues from new methods.
Mol. Immunol. 47 (2010), p. 649-657.


Chris Howe*, Malgorzata Garstka*, Mohammed Al-Balushi, Esther Ghanem, Antony N. Antoniou, Susanne Fritzsche, Gytis Jankevicius, Nadia Kontouli, Clemens Schneeweiss, Anthony Williams, Tim Elliott, and Sebastian Springer:
Calreticulin-dependent recycling in the early secretory pathway mediates optimal peptide loading of MHC class I molecules.
EMBO Journal 28 (2009), p. 3730-3744.


Raghavendra Palankar, André G. Skirtach, Oliver Kreft, Mathieu Bedard, Malgorzata Garstka, Keith Gould, Helmuth Möhwald, Gleb B. Sukhorukov, Mathias Winterhalter, and Sebastian Springer:
Controlled intracellular release of peptides from microcapsules enhances antigen presentation on MHC class I molecules.
Small 5 (2009), p. 2168-76.


Clemens Schneeweiss, Malgorzata Garstka, James Smith, Marc T. Huett, and Sebastian Springer:
The mechanism of action of tapasin in the peptide exchange of MHC class I molecules determined form kinetics simulation studies.
Mol. Immunol. 46 (2009), p. 2054-2063.


Rakina Yaneva, Sebastian Springer, and Martin Zacharias:
Flexibility of the MHC class II peptide binding cleft in the bound, partially filled, and empty states: A molecular dynamics simulation study.
Biopolymers 91 (2009), p. 14-27.


Florian Sieker, T.P. Straatsma, Sebastian Springer, and Martin Zacharias:
Differential tapasin dependence of MHC class I molecules correlates with conformational changes upon peptide dissociation: A molecular dynamics simulation study.
Mol. Immunol. 45 (2008), 3714-22.


Malgorzata Garstka*, Britta Borchert*, Mohammed Al-Balushi*, PVK Praveen, Nicole M. Kühl, Irina Majoul, Rainer Duden, and Sebastian Springer:
Peptide-receptive MHC class I molecules cycle between endoplasmic reticulum and cis-Golgi in wild type lymphocytes.
J. Biol. Chem. 282 (2007), p. 30680-90.


Gleb B. Sukhorukov, Andrei L. Rogach, Malgorzata Garstka, Sebastian Springer, Wolfgang J. Parak, A. Munoz-Javier, Oliver Kreft, Andrei G. Skirtach, A.S. Susha, Yannick Ramaye, Raghavendra Palankar, and Mathias Winterhalter:
Multifunctionalized polymer microcapsules: novel tools for biological and pharmacological applications.
Small 3 (2007), p. 944-55.


Florian Sieker, Sebastian Springer, and Martin Zacharias:
Comparative molecular dynamics analysis of tapasin-dependent and -independent MHC class I alleles.
Protein Sci. 16 (2007), p. 299-308.


Martin Zacharias and Sebastian Springer:
Conformational flexibility of the MHC class I α1-α2 domain in peptide bound and free states: a molecular dynamics simulation study.
Biophys. J. 87 (2004), p. 2203-14.


Cynthia Anne Wright, Patrycja Kozik, Martin Zacharias, and Sebastian Springer:
Tapasin and other chaperones: models of the MHC class I loading complex.
Biol Chem. 385 (2004), p.763-78; doi: 10.1515/BC.2004.100


G.Z. Lederkremer, Y. Cheng, B.V. Petre, E. Vogan, S. Springer, R. Schekman, T. Walz, and T. Kirchhausen:
Structure of the Sec23p/24p and Sec13/31p complexes of COPII.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98 (2001), p. 10704-10709.


Sebastian Springer, Eric Chen, Rainer Duden, M. Marzioch, Adele Rowley, Susan Hamamoto, Sabeeha Merchant, and Randy Schekman:
The p24 family of transmembrane proteins is not essential for vesicular transport in S. cerevisiae.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97 (2000), p. 4034-4039 .


Sebastian Springer, Anne Spang, and Randy Schekman:
A primer on vesicle budding.
Cell 97 (1999), p. 145-148.


Ann Glithero, José Tormo, Jonathan S. Haurum, Gemma Arsequell, G. Valencia, Jon Edwards, Sebastian Springer, Alain R.M. Townsend, Y.L. Pao, Mark Wormald, Raymond A. Dwek, E. Yvonne Jones, and Tim Elliott:
Crystal structures of two H-2Db/glycopeptide complexes suggest a molecular basis for CTL cross-reactivity.
Immunity 10 (1999), p.63-74.


Sebastian Springer and Randy Schekman:
Nucleation of COPII Vesicular Coat Complex by Endoplasmic Reticulum to Golgi Vesicle SNAREs.
Science 281 (1998), p. 698-700; doi: 10.1126/science.281.5377.698


Sebastian Springer, Klaus Döring, Jonathan C. A. Skipper, Alain R. M. Townsend, and Vincenzo Cerundolo:
Fast Association Rates suggest a Conformational Change in the MHC Class I Molecule H-2Db upon Peptide Binding.
Biochemistry 37 (1998), p. 3001-3012.


Sebastian Springer:
The biochemistry of antigen presentation.
DPhil thesis (1996), University of Oxford.

A non-refereed but still interesting publication about teaching (in German):

Can Buldun, Susanne Illenberger, and Sebastian Springer:
MOOCs – Lernen im Internet. Die Lehrveranstaltungen der Zukunft?
Biologie in unserer Zeit 44 (2014), p. 130-133.
With video abstract!